مقاله لاتین الزویر بررسی رفتار و رشد و بالندگی نوزادان

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مقاله لاتین الزویر بررسی رفتار و رشد و بالندگی نوزادان

Infant Behavior and Development

a b s t r a c t


The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication
skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed
between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish
the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental
interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to
examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences
the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention
skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to
emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language
development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze
alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary
growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills
can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills.

1. Introduction
It is from the very beginning of life that infants show a remarkable sensitivity to social stimuli (Striano & Rochat, 1999).
In the first months of life they rapidly learn that the gaze and looking behavior of others contain important information
(Farroni, Csibra, Simion, & Johnson, 2002; Symons, Hains, & Muir, 1998). Making eye contact is a potent means of establishing
a communicative link in humans. A milestone in early communicative development is the emergence of joint attention
between an adult, an infant, and some object or event. Joint attention is defined as the capacity to engage in coordinated
social interaction, which includes (1) sharing attention (e.g., through the use of alternating gaze), (2) following the attention
of others (e.g., following eye gaze or a point), and (3) directing the attention of another. The description of the early communication
skills (sharing, following and directing attention) is shown in Table 1. Another milestone in early communicative
development is the acquisition of language (Table 1). Language is an essential skill as it influences other domains, such
as social and cognitive development. However, the exact longitudinal interrelations between joint attention and language
development deserve further attention.
Only a few studies have monitored the development of early communication skills, such as joint attention and language,
longitudinally. This is of importance, because it enables to get a detailed view on the developmental trajectory of these skills

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